Saturday, October 1, 2016

Churrasco Rebosado - Spanish-style Fried Fillet Steak in Batter

Steak was in the refrigerator and needed to be cooked.  I did not want to broil or grill or cook it in any of the usual ways.  What to do?

I returned to a book I used once before in this blog:  The Epicure's Book of Steak and Beef Dishes.

ISBN 0-89535-035-1
It does have some interesting ways of serving beef!

Today my attention focused on page 60, in the chapter titled "Steak".

Churrasco Rebosado

fillet steak: 1 1/2 pounds
salt and pepper:  to taste

for the batter
flour:  1/2 cup
eggs:  3
milk:  1/2 to 2/3 cup
onion:  1 small
chopped chives:  1 teaspoon

for frying
oil:  generous 1/2 cup

to garnish
watercress: to taste
tomatoes:  4 to 5

1.  Cut the beef into narrow strips; these should be no more than 1/2 inch in thickness.  Sprinkle with a little salt and pepper; cover and leave in the refrigerator for an hour.

2.  Sieve the flour into a large mixing bowl, separate the eggs, and beat the egg yolks and the milk into the flour until you have a smooth batter.

3.  Peel and grate the onion, add to the batter together with the chives and a little salt and pepper.

4.  Whisk the egg whites until stiff, fold into the batter; this should not be done until just before the steak is about to be cooked.

5.  Drop the steak into the batter and turn gently, so that it is evenly coated.

6.  Heat the oil in a large, heavy frying pan; to test if this is the right heat, put in a cube of day-old bread and it should turn golden within 30 seconds.

7.  Spoon the steak into the hot oil, fry quickly until golden brown; this takes about 2 minutes.  Turn and cook on the second side for the same time.

8.  Lower the heat and continue cooking for another 3-8 minutes, depending upon how well done you like the meat.

9.  Lift the batter-coated steak onto absorbent paper to drain.

To serve:  Garnish with the watercress and thinly sliced tomatoes.  

My Notes

The directions were simple and easy to follow.

I suspect, after having completed the recipe, that I should have cut the beef strips longways down the middle, to make them more like sticks.

Thin but not narrow.
I liked the look of the batter with the onions and chives in it.

Colorful!  Appealing!
When I folded in the egg whites, I left it with little clumps of white in the batter.  Maybe that wasn't right but I was worried that I would over mix the batter.

We like our meat pretty rare so I did not cook the steak much longer after the two minutes on each side.

First side cooking.
Also, I didn't crowd the pieces in the pan so it took several batches to get them all done.

Second side cooking.  
The batter didn't stick to the pieces entirely but that didn't become a problem.  I like the way the batter puffed up when cooked.

I tried not to stack the pieces on the plate while they were draining so the batter wouldn't get soggy.  I wasn't entirely successful but it worked out.

The Verdict

I served them as the main dish, accompanied by some cooked, shredded potatoes and sliced tomatoes.  (Sorry, no watercress available at the time!)

This was just my first helping.
We ate them using knives and forks but I really wanted to just pick them up with my fingers to eat them.

The texture was excellent:  the meat was tender, the coating was crispy and light.

The flavor was excellent:  the onion added a nice little zing to each bite that almost tasted like vinegar.  I didn't pick up on the chives at all but they added visual interest to the dish.

Overall it reminded me of some really good tempura or onion rings that I have had.  I'm guessing the batter is similar with the whipped egg whites in it.  I was pleased, too, that I had gotten the right temperature for the oil and managed to keep it that way throughout the cooking process.  That bread trick worked well!

Success!  I could do better next time, I think, but we all enjoyed it and I liked the (few remaining) leftovers, too, when they were cold.  They might also be good with a little malt vinegar sprinkled on.

Ms. Patten did not mention any sort of background for this dish so I looked around the web a bit.  I find it is listed as Argentinian, which is famous for its beef.  I'm not surprised!  The recipe I found found had chilis added to the batter and had some more herbs mixed in.  They described it as a "rich dish" and needed to be served with light sides like salad and rice.  Source:  Argentina Cooks!

I also had the impression that this is a lot like an Elizabethan recipe called Bacon Froize.  Basically cooked bacon cooked again in a batter.

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Chippewa "Bannock" Bread

I have always thought of bannock bread as something from the British Isles.  A look around the 'net tells me I was right, because I found this tidbit when looking up "bannock history."
"Bannock" is a Northern English and Scottish word of Celtic origin.  The Oxford English Dictionary states the term stems from panicium, a Latin word for "baked dough", or from panis, meaning bread.  Its first cited use was in 1000, and its first cited definition in 1562.
But I also found, in "Bannock:  a brief history",   
The Inuit call it 'palauga,' it's 'luskinikn' to the Mi'kmaq, while the Ojibway call it 'ba `wezhiganag.'  Whatever they call it, from north to south and coast to coast, just about every indigenous nation across North America has some version of bannock.
Other sites make the point that "bannock" could refer to the cooking style (frying or baking next to the fire) or the loaf itself:  "Bannock is a variety of flat quick bread or any large, round article baked or cooked from grain."  (Wikipedia)  Native American bannocks are often called "frybreads."

In the book, Spirit of the Harvest,

ISBN 1-55670-186-1
the recipe for Chippewa Bannock brings up this point:
Chippewa bannock is closely related to cornmeal johnny-cakes, ash cakes, and corn pones.  All of these cakes, though best when eaten hot, were a practical food to take along when the tribe was on the move or warriors were out hunting.

 Chippewa Bannock (page 74)

1 1/2 cups cornmeal
1/2 cup water
4 tablespoons hazelnut oil, melted butter, or bacon drippings.
4 tablespoons maple syrup or honey
1/2 teaspoon salt (optional)
3 to 4 tablespoons cooking oil for frying

And water.
In a mixing bowl, combine cornmeal, water, hazelnut oil, syrup, and salt.

In a large skillet, heat 2 tablespoons oil over medium-high heat.  Drop batter by tablespoonfuls into hot oil.  Flatten with spatula and fry cakes until crisp and browned on both sides.  Add more oil as needed.  Serves 4 to 6.

My Notes

I used melted butter and maple syrup and the salt.

This was very easy to mix together and I fried it in my cast iron skillet in several batches so as not to crowd them.
Pretty easy!
I wanted to make the cakes thick enough to be more than just fried crisps but not too thick that the middle wouldn't cook through.  I noticed that pressing them with the spatula pushed out the gaps and dents to make it a patty.  When they were brown on one side, I flipped them.
After the flip.
The batch was a good size.  I had three for dinner and it was plenty along with giving me left overs.

The Verdict

As mentioned in the previous post, I served this with Salmon Chowder.  It was a good accompaniment.

The flavor was slightly sweet (hooray for maple syrup!) with a lovely corn flavor.  The outside was crunchy and the inside was soft (but thoroughly cooked).  I am glad I put in the salt and it did not need any more.

It was fun to pick it up with my fingers!  It was not greasy or oily to the touch but the butter flavor shown through.

I think the thickness I picked was just right:

At most 1/2 inch thick.
Success!  I would love to have it again.  I think it would be good with other foods mixed in, like fresh corn, currants, or pine nuts.  And I would always recommend the maple syrup.  

I will confirm that they were better hot but still tasty cold.

Thursday, September 1, 2016

Native American Salmon Chowder

Okay, I'll admit it.  I have a cookbook addiction.  There!  I said it!  A friend was telling me about a neat book she wanted to get and, while I was looking for it online, I found several other interesting books, too.  One of them was The Spirit of the Harvest, North American Indian Cooking, by Beverly Cox and Martin Jacobs.

ISBN 1-55670-186-1
I typically shy away from these sorts of books because they usually present modern recipes that are somewhat like what the mentioned culture might have done.  When I see recipes that include the trendy ingredient-of-the-day, (applewood smoked bacon, Greek yogurt, acai berries, etc.) then I put the book down and walk away.

This book promised "authentic recipes, glorious photographs, and an informative text".  In fact, it says on the inside cover,
A specially created map places the tribes and their principal foods in geographical context.  Each chapter is introduced by an expert on the Indians of the region, and discusses the cultures of major tribal groups, their diets, their ceremonial use of food, and the historical dishes they developed.
Two recipes caught my attention.  The first is from the Northwest region of North America:  The coast from Alaska down to northern California.  This is the land of the salmon!  I chose:

Pacific Salmon Chowder  (pg 205)

1 tablespoon butter or vegetable oil
4 potatoes, peeled and diced
1 cup green onions, sliced
1/4 teaspoon dill seed
6 cups milk
1 pound fresh salmon, cut into chunks
Salt and pepper to taste
Dill sprigs, for garnish

Melt butter in a large saucepan over medium heat.  Add potatoes, green onions, and dill seed, and saute for 2 to 3 minutes.  Add milk and simmer over low heat for 40 minutes.  Add fresh salmon and simmer for 10 minutes more.  Season with salt and pepper.  Garnish individual servings with dill sprigs.  Serves 6 to 8.

My Notes

I used 1% milk; it may be the authors expected whole milk.  The amount of salmon I had was a little under a pound.  I cut it into small, bite-sized chunks.

Instead of butter, I used olive oil.

Potatoes and green onions.
The simmering of the potatoes in the milk was not really what I call a simmer.  That implies a very slow boil and I never let the milk even start bubbling.  But it did get steaming hot with tiny bubbles around the edges, and that was enough to cook the potatoes through in the 40 minutes and the salmon in the extra 10 minutes.  It is a very gentle way to cook salmon, which did not get dry or overcooked.

Tiny bubbles!
The Verdict

I served the chowder with grapes and Chippewa Bannock bread, a feature for the next post.  I had salted the chowder before serving and it tasted right but after it cooled in my bowl a little, I felt that it needed a lot more salt.  My guest tasters agreed.

With dill weed as a garnish.
Success!  My mouth wants thick soups and chowders and this was not thick, making me wish I had crushed some of the potatoes before adding the salmon.  But it was a good soup, full of salmon flavor.  The dill seed was very subtle and the potatoes and green onions give it interest.  I would do it again but I would make sure I had the full pound of salmon or more just so that each bite had more salmon as compared to potato.

Monday, August 15, 2016

Game of Thrones Candied Onions

Ooooo, I am in a quirky mood today!  I wanted to do something different for this blog post but the new cookbooks were not meeting that need.  What to do???

There is a section in my cookbook collection that is for silliness:  a Star Trek cookbook, a Green Eggs and Ham cookbook, and so on.  What caught my eye today was The Unofficial Game of Thrones Cookbook, by Alan Kistler.

ISBN 978-1-4405-3872-8
It is an amusing book if you are a GofT fan (I've read the books).  The recipes are mostly standard and common ones, like leek soup, black bread, rib roast, leg of lamb.  But their names are tied to characters and places from that world and that makes it cute.

In Chapter 2, "A Morsel in a Moment:  Appetizers and Snacks", I found

The Cheesemonger's Candied Onions (page 52)

1 bag (2 cups) peeled pearl onions
2 teaspoons sugar or brown sugar
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon butter or olive oil
1 cup cold water

And water
1.  In a heavy-bottomed skillet over medium heat, combine onions, sugar, salt, and butter with 1 cup cold water; bring to a simmer.

2.  Cook gently until all water is absorbed and onions are coated in a light glaze, about 5 minutes.

3.  Reduce heat to low.  Cook slowly until glaze browns and onions attain golden-brown appearance, about 5 minutes more.

4.  Alternative method:  Once liquid is reduced to a glaze, put the entire pan in a preheated 350 degree oven, and roast until browned.

(Ed.:  The recipe suggests you use fresh onions if possible; they are better than the frozen and peeled kind.)

My Notes

It took me about 20 minutes to peel the onions, which is what the book said it would take.  I put the ingredients into the cast iron skillet in the order it listed but I then wished I had added the onions after I had stirred the other ingredients together first.  It didn't appear to be a problem, though.

I was suspicious about the timing listed in the recipe:  using medium heat, would the 1 cup of water be absorbed or evaporated in about five minutes?  The same went for step three.  It just didn't seem like enough time.

Here was my dilemma:  Do I follow the instructions according to time?  Or according to description?  I chose description.

Starting to simmer
It took about 5 minutes for the water to simmer.  Then another 30 minutes or so to reduce the water to almost nothing.  To achieve "cook gently", I turned the heat down to medium low once the simmer started.  Perhaps too gently?

Water nearly gone after 30 minutes
Then it took another 30 minutes to get some browning of glaze and onions.  That was with the heat to low.  Perhaps too low?

Some browning.  This is where I stopped the cooking
When finished it appeared that the onions were thoroughly cooked and very soft.  What confused me about that was the recipe said fresh onions are better than frozen because of "the sweetness and crunch."  What crunch?

The Verdict

The recipe did not specify serving them hot, warm, or cold.  I tried one hot, then one warm, then one cold after it had been chilled for a few hours.

Hot:  Very tasty!  Lightly sweet from the glaze, lightly sweet and meaty from the onion, and, surprisingly, I got a mild acid, vinegar taste, too.  It was a nice surprise.  This would be good to serve as a condiment next to roast meat.

Warm:  Even better!  Buttery, a mild onion flavor, and a light blend of sweet and salty.  I noticed a bit of a crunch from a larger onion.  I tasted the glaze without the onion, too, and liked that.  That is where I got the acid flavor.  This would be good as a condiment or hors d'oeuvre.

Cold: Tasty!  Like the hot version in flavor but a bit more sticky.

I liked the warm version the best because the flavors were more distinct.


To be honest, I expected either a thicker sugar coating on the soft onions or a thin but crackly candy coating on nearly raw onions.  I got neither.  I am glad the onions were soft and not bitey.  I'm not sure if I would want more sweet coating on them or not.

So what sort of candied onion recipes might I find in our world?

This looked good:  Candied Red Onions.  It uses red onions, red wine vinegar, and sugar.

This, too:  Candied Onions.  It uses white onions, salt, butter, sugar, and steak sauce.

The idea that did not look good was someone using pearl onions dipped in chocolate as a prank!  (Although, hmmmm.  A cooked onion dipped in dark chocolate?  Might be worthwhile, especially if it is a little salty.)

The basic idea of all these recipes is to get the onion cooked enough to be enjoyable eating and then getting a tasty glaze on it to enhance the flavor.  I think you could play around with the spices and liquids to customize the flavor to match your entree.

Friday, August 5, 2016

Custard, Again. Baked and with Eggs (intentionally)

Whew!  July was a busy month and I barely got to cook, much less cook for my blog.

My experience with eggless custards and the nifty book, American Cookery by Amelia Simmons,

ISBN-13:  978-1-4494-2313-1

made me want to try one of her egged custards.

Reference Custard #2
How would unbaked be different from baked?  Eggless from egged?  I had to try.  (Besides, the weather has been very hot and I have learned that custards are an excellent dessert:  cool, light, not too sweet, and excellent with berries.  Refreshing!)

My Redaction

1 quart whole milk
2 tablespoons sugar
6 eggs, beaten
1 tablespoon brandy
1 tablespoon moscato wine (sweet)
1/2 tablespoon rose water
generous grating of nutmeg

I like the dramatic look of this picture.
All ingredients were mixed well.  The nutmeg tends to float on top; I don't know how to change that.

The custard mix was ladled into small glass and ceramic bowls.  Each one held about 4 ounces of the mix even if the bowl could have held more.  

The oven was preheated to 300 degrees Fahrenheit.

I placed the bowls in a deep pan, placed the pan on the oven rack, then poured hot water into the pan until the water level was close to even with the custard mix level.

Pre-water.  It is easier to move into the oven that way.
The custards were baked for 30 minutes.  That is when a knife blade dipped into the center of a custard came out clean.  Visually the custard was "jiggly" and a little puffy.

Dipping in the knife
The blade is clean
The pan was carefully removed (no hot water spills!) and set out to cool a little.  Then I used a spatula to lift the bowls from the water.  They went right into the refrigerator without any covering.

The Verdict

After chilling them for a few hours, I served the custard.  It was firm, smooth, and pleasant to look at.  The berries sat on top instead of sinking in (as they did for the unbaked custards).  

A spoonful shows how well the custard set up:  you can see an edge on it.

The texture was smooth, creamy, soft, delicate.  

The flavor was not at all what I expected.  I loved the custard taste and feel but I could not taste the brandy or the wine and only tasted a little of the nutmeg.  It mostly tasted like rosewater.  

I love rosewater but that was not the only flavor I wanted.  I also love the brandy and nutmeg flavor combination so I was disappointed.  I don't mind I didn't taste the wine and perhaps next time I would make it a little sweeter.  However I would use less rosewater and much more brandy and nutmeg!

Vanilla would be good, too.

There were enough bowls of custard that I tried it in different ways.  My favorite was for breakfast with some buttered, spiced crumbs on top along with a little fruit. 

This was a success.  I would just change the flavorings to suit my preferences.  Yum!

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Eggless, No-Bake Custard -- Again and Again

Previously I attempted to make a custard that had no eggs and that could be made on the stovetop.  While that didn't quite work out, I did manage to save the food and make a good dessert.  See the recipe here:  Eggless, No-Bake Custard, A Tasty Failure.

Undaunted, I tried again.  Twice.  Here's what happened.

In the very first attempt I used heavy whipping cream and did not see any of the required curdling.  My Internet reading suggested that a better choice would be half-and-half because less cream would allow more curdling opportunities.

Let me note here that the first attempt did look a bit grainy, which I suspect was curdling.  It never got thick, which I think was because I put in too much wine.

So for attempt number two I used half-and-half.  I used the same amount of sugar (2 tablespoons), the same wine, and just a little more of the spices.

I definitely saw curdling but it didn't get very thick at all.  Again, I think I put in too much wine even though I used less than in the first attempt.

I expected bigger curds, like I saw when I made Green Cheese.  However this is good because the little curds contributed very little to the texture.

It was served in a bowl garnished with a few berries.  It was thin enough that the berries sank!

Overall it was tasty and I would call it a success.  Creamy and slightly sweet.  The spice flavors came through and were pleasant.   Light, cool, and refreshing; just right for a hot day.

When the custard sat in the refrigerator for a few hours, it separated.  The curds on top were thicker and still tasty.  The liquid below tasted like thin wine with a bit of spice.  Not bad but not exciting.  I suppose I could put it in oatmeal or bread for flavor.

One guest taster suggested that the berries become the main part of the dessert and the custard become the topping.  This gave me a focus for the third attempt.

So one more try!  Honest!  I had to call it "Custard's Last Stand" to convince my family there would be no more attempts.  (They groaned.)

I used all the same ingredients as before except I forgot to add the spices at the end.  I measured the wine, putting in one tablespoon at a time, until I saw curdling.  It took 7 tablespoons to accomplish what I thought was a decent amount of curdling.

And then...

And then I was called away to take care of something and completely forgot that the custard was sitting on the stove on the (thankfully) very lowest heat.  I don't know how long it sat there.  When I found it, I hurriedly stirred it, put it in a bowl, and popped into the refrigerator, crossing my fingers that it wasn't ruined.

It wasn't!

In fact, it was excellent:  thick and creamy and flavorful with very little separation.  Certainly not the "curds and liquid" layers from attempt number two.  Really just a thicker part on top and a thinner part (both with curds) on the bottom.  The curds were bigger but still not a texture issue.

The missing spices were not missed.  I used the custard as a topping on a mixture of strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries.

The second time I served it I added a mixture of breadcrumbs that had been mixed with butter and spices.  Actually it was the same mixture that I use to press into a pan as a crust for a tart, just not baked.  That added a nice crunch and a very light touch of cinnamon.  Note that I just sprinkled a few finger-fulls on top of the custard.

The berries were sweet and a little tart.  The custard was creamy, a little sweet, and a little tart from the wine.  The crunchy topping was, well, crunchy to offset the creamy and bring the flavors all together.

An unqualified success!

We had the same dessert several nights in a row and thoroughly enjoyed it each time.  Very refreshing.

Monday, June 6, 2016

Eggless, No-Bake Custard -- A Tasty Failure

I recently acquired a new book, American Cookery by Amelia Simmons.

ISBN-13: 978-1-4494-2313-1
First published in 1796 by Hudson & Goodwin, American Cookery is widely recognized as the first cookbook written by an American for American kitchens, and it is an important document in culinary history.  
It is a facsimile edition where the left page is in modern typeset and the right page is a scan of a copy in the collection of the American Antiquarian Society (AAS).   No redactions or interpretations of the recipes are included; the book is a faithful reproduction of the old version.  You can read more about it here.

When I found this book for sale, I was not certain at all I should buy it.  I had the strong feeling that I had read it already and didn't want to purchase a second copy.  But it was beautifully done with a red cloth cover and gold foil stamping, so I decided it was worth it.

As it turned out, I had read it but didn't own a print edition.  I had found a digital copy on my iPad.

The section that caught my attention the most was on custards.  There were several recipes offered, the first of which was to be cooked on the stove (not baked) and did not contain eggs.  I thought that was different enough that it might be worth a try.  When I found the digital copy, I was amused to see that I had bookmarked the page on custards already.

Digital page screen shot
So I decided to give the eggless, no-bake custard a try.  It seemed like a good recipe to know for when I am doing a public cooking demonstration since I usually cook over charcoal and rarely bake.

My Redaction

1 pint heavy whipping cream
2 Tablespoons sugar
1/2 bottle Moscato sweet wine
ground cinnamon and nutmeg to taste

More added later; see below.
I put the cream in a medium saucepan and started warming it over very low heat.  As it was warming I added the sugar, mixing in 1 tablespoon at a time, and tasting until it seemed right.  Two tablespoons made the cream very mildly sweet and I liked that, especially knowing that the wine was sweet.

Once the cream was too hot for me to keep my finger dipped in it, I started adding the wine.  It went in a few splashes at a time, stirring well with each addition.  The pan was still over the very low fire.

I watched it carefully for signs of curdling and nothing happened after 1/2 of a bottle.  At that point I felt the mixture was more wine than cream and that curdling wasn't going to occur.  I let it sit over the heat a while longer, to the point where bubbles were forming, and then I mixed in about 1/4 teaspoon each (maybe a little less) of the cinnamon and nutmeg.  At this point I turned off the heat under the saucepan.

Nope, it didn't curdle and didn't even thicken.  What happened?  What can I do to save it?

Nope.  Not curdled.
I decided to heat the oven to 225 degrees Fahrenheit.  In the meantime I beat three eggs, tempered them by adding several spoonfuls of the hot cream mixture and stirring well in between each addition, then poured the egg mixture into the saucepan and stirred some more.

I then set up a water bath (bain marie) with two nesting casserole dishes and put very hot water into the outer dish.  The custard mixture went into the inner dish.

Just before the water was added.
The whole thing baked for 1 hour to set up the custard.  Then the inner pan went into the refrigerator for a few hours.

The Verdict

Well, the idea of the eggless, no-bake custard didn't work out so that was a failure.

The baked custard with eggs, however, turned out to be quite tasty!  The custard itself was very light and delicate.  There was a mixture of subtle flavors:  slightly spicy, somewhat acidic (it was the wine but it made us think of lemon).  The texture appeared grainy but I couldn't detect it by taste and feel.  It was creamy but not rich and just very lightly sweet.

One taste tester noted that it was an excellent dessert after a long and hot day.  It was cool, refreshing, "mellow", and light.

I served it topped with a few fresh blackberries and two small leaves of mint.  That all went well with the custard.

Pretty good for a failure!
I wondered why the recipe didn't work as specified.  A quick check of the 'net explained what probably happened:  Most people don't want their cream to curdle when adding alcohol (funny!) so the discussions recommended using heavy cream instead of something like half-and-half because the fat content stops the protein from curdling when it encounters the acid in the wine.  (See article here.)

Ah ha!  Now I think I should have used light cream or half-and-half so the wine can curdle it.  Perhaps I can try it again.

By the way, you can acquire copies of many of the AAS's cookbooks from their publisher's webpage.  Some are in print, some are digital downloads, including a copy of Directions for Cooking by Troops, in Camp and Hospital by Florence Nightingale, which I find intriguing.

Monday, May 16, 2016

Sugar Smoking -- A Technique from Hong Kong/Kowloon

My mom is at the age where she really doesn't want to cook much any more.  I don't blame her -- she has spent a lot of her life cooking and I think she has earned a break.  Of course this means she doesn't want many of her cookbooks, so I took the opportunity to abscond with, um, ask her politely for one book that has intrigued me for a while.  It is titled How the World Cooks Chicken, by H. J. Muessen.  Published in 1980, her book no longer had the dust jacket, so I found an image of it on the web:
ISBN 978-0812861952
The chapters are divided up into regions of the world, like "The Pacific", "The Orient", "Asia", "Africa", and so on.  Many of the recipes look intriguing, although the ones from Africa would be a challenge for me since I am not fond of spicy food.  Nearly every recipe in that chapter is spicy!

The recipe that caught my attention was on page 40, from the Hong Kong/Kowloon area.  Mr. Muessen says,
The Chinese use hickory, walnut, or other woods in smoking their meats just as we do, but another method, which gives an entirely different taste, is sugar smoking.  This is best done in an outdoor covered barbecue, but it can be done in your oven, although one should have the exhaust fan on throughout.
Sugar-Smoked Duck (or Chicken)

1 4-pound duck (or 3 pound chicken)
1 quart water
1 onion, quartered
10 peppercorns
1/2 cup brown sugar

Bird and first cooking ingredients
6 tablespoons peanut oil
1/4 teaspoon anise seed powder
1 clove garlic, minced
6 tablespoons soy sauce
3 tablespoons sherry

Marinade and smoking ingredients
Place the bird in the water in a large kettle and bring to the boil.  Reduce heat, skim off the scum, then add the onion, salt, and peppercorns.  Cover, and cook slowly (duck 1 1/2 hours, chicken 1 hour).  Now cut the bird into individual servings or into 16 pieces if you wish.  (See page 35.)

Mix together the marinade ingredients and stir to blend thoroughly.  Pour the marinade over the chicken pieces in a large bowl, turning to coat each piece.  Let stand, covered, for 1 hour.

When the meat is ready, preheat the oven to 375 degrees F.  Line the bottom of a large, ovenproof pot with foil and place a small rack inside.  Add 1/2 of the sugar.  Place the meat on the rack and cover the kettle with foil, then place a lid on tightly, forming a seal. Put the kettle in the oven for 10 minutes, and allow the sugar to burn and thus smoke.

Now remove the kettle and reline the pan if necessary, and add the remaining sugar.  Reline the top of the kettle, and return to the oven to smoke for another 10 minutes.  The meat should turn a rich mahogany color, and the sugar-smoke taste will have permeated the meat.  Brush lightly with a little peanut oil and serve.  Serves 4 - 6.

My Notes

I used a chicken and let the bird slowly cook for about 1 hour, 30 minutes over the lowest heat my stove top could give.

It came out of the liquid (which was later turned into lentil soup!) and into a bowl where it cooled to the point where I could handle it.  I cut it into twelve pieces total and that seemed just fine.  Then the pieces went into a flat-bottom dish.

For the marinade I used freshly ground star anise seeds, canola oil, sweet cream sherry, fresh garlic, and low sodium soy sauce.  I poured it over the meat, then turned the pieces over and started the timer.  After 30 minutes I turned the pieces over again to marinate for another 30 minutes.

Once the hour marinating time was up, I drained off the marinade and put the meat into the refrigerator.

My neighbor had kindly agreed to get his barbecue hot for my grand experiment.  He used lump charcoal and heated the barbecue to 375 degrees F.

In the meantime I formed two trays out of foil, putting in about 1/4 cup (unpacked) of brown sugar into the bottom of each one.

We smoked the meat this way:  I put the chicken on the grills, he pushed the grills apart to expose the coals, and I put the foil tray directly on the coals.  Then he slid the grills together, closed the lid, and vented the top just a little bit.

First smoking, preturning.
It took a few minutes for the smoke to start showing but then it did and we opened the lid when the smoke levels dropped.  At that point he turned the meat over, slid apart the grills, and took out the first foil tray.  I put in the second tray and he got the lid closed again.

First smoking, some turned.
First smoking, nearly all turned
In both cases it took less than 10 minutes for the smoke to start up and then die down.  It made both of us think of teriyaki chicken.

While the second smoking was going on, we looked at the first tray.  The sugar had completely carbonized and was nearly odorless and tasteless.  Yes, we tasted it and found no flavor but there was a texture that made me think I was eating dirt.  Ugh!  I don't recommend it.

Do not eat this at home.  Or anywhere else!
The final result was a beautiful mahogany color.  The chicken smelled so good we could hardly wait to taste it.  I served it with hot bread and a simple green salad.

Beautiful in looks and in taste.
The Verdict

Let's put it this way:  I tentatively nibbled the first piece (I was worried it would have a burnt flavor) and then enthusiastically devoured it.  And a few more pieces.  Oh yes, I remembered to eat the salad and bread, too!

The flavor was amazing.  I couldn't say exactly what part was the sugar smoking and what part was the marinade but the overall taste combination was excellent.  I had hints of the anise, some lovely bitter from the soy and sherry, and a rich umami in every bite.  The meat was moist, even the breast meat which I usually dislike because it tends to be dry.

I would do it again and my taste testers agreed they would enjoy it again, too.  After the meat is cooked and marinated, it was very easy and quick to get it smoked.

As I was wolfing it down enjoying my meal, it occurred to me that this marinating and smoking combination might be good to use on salmon.  I wouldn't cook it first but just marinate it and smoke it, being careful to not let it overcook.

Success!  Oh my yes, success.  Excellent and flavorful and a great, fun, and intriguing food to serve at a party.